The Galapagos Land Iguana, Conolophus subcristatus (Iguanidae) is a large (>48 in), heavy bodied lizard, with thick back legs and smaller front legs. It is yellow or brown in color, with spots throughout its ventrum and dorsum. A spiky dorsal crest runs along the neck and back. There are long, sharp claws on its toes. It has a short blunt head and pleurodont teeth. Its tail is quite a bit longer than its trunk .
Conolophus subcristatus is endemic to six of the Galapagos islands, off the coast of Ecuador. It was widely distributed on these islands, though its numbers are now greatly reduced, so the species is classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
In 1835 when Charles Darwin first went to the Galapagos, land iguanas were extremely numerous; he wrote: “I cannot give a more forcible proof of their number, then by stating that when we were left at Santiago Island, we could not for some time find a spot free from their burrows on which to pitch our single tent”. Sadly, this once thriving Santiago Island population has become completely extinct .